By Adam Smith
Last Updated: 24/03/17 9:29am
How long do managers last at the top 92 clubs in England ? We’ve crunched the numbers to reveal the exact average in days… Job security for managers in England’s top four tiers is at an all-time low, a Sky Sports study has found. A remarkable 75 managers were sacked, quit or failed to last after temporary stints in charge last season – the highest total in English football history. In addition, the average tenure for a departing manager last term was an all-time low of just 423 days.
This season, 51 managers have been axed or walked already and the average tenure is just 477 days and, with over three months until July 1st, that number could still drop below that threshold to break a new record. In the first years after the Second World War, managers had an average tenure of more than seven years, with just 20 departing their roles during the 1946/47 season. But even as recently as the start of the Premier League era in 1992/93, managers could expect to be in charge for nearly three years, with just 25 coaches losing their jobs in the first Premier League season. For the study, Sky Sports recorded every manager who has lasted 35 days or more at a current top-four tier club since 1946/47 to work out how long the average boss keeps his job, with the help of Soccerbase.com1 data.
The red line shows how many managers have left a club every season since 1946/47, while the blue line shows the average tenure of departed managers
THIS SEASON’S CASUALTIES
There have been a number of managerial departures this season which have highlighted the insecurity football managers face. Leicester boss Claudio Ranieri was sacked in February 2017, despite leading Leicester to a 5000-1 shock Premier League win last season, while Aitor Karanka – who led Middlesbrough to the top flight last term – left his post last week.
Aitor Karanka was sacked by Middlesbrough this month
Bob Bradley only lasted 85 days at Swansea before receiving his marching orders, while Walter Zenga (Wolves), Kenny Jackett (Rotherham), Alberto Cavasin, Andy Edwards (both Leyton Orient), Russell Slade (Coventry), Chris Brass (Bury), all lasted fewer than 100 days at the helm this term in the lower leagues. Arsenal boss Arsene Wenger is under pressure to step down after a string of poor results, but the Frenchman is unlikely to consider resignation lightly after more than 20 years in charge of the Gunners.
Arsenal fans hold up anti-Wenger signs after the match at West Brom
Wenger is England’s longest-serving, active manager and currently holds the 10th-longest reign in our study, which is nearly twice as long as the next longest active tenure, held by Paul Tisdale at Exeter (10 years, nine months). But neither Wenger or Tisdale come close to the all-time record set by Fred Everiss, who was in charge of West Brom between 1902 and 1948 – the longest tenure of any football manager in English history. Meanwhile, Sir Alex Ferguson’s 26-and-a-half-year reign at Old Trafford was the third-longest in our list, ahead of another ex United boss Sir Matt Busby.
Manchester United manager Alex Ferguson and keeper Peter Schmeichel with the trophy after a 2-1 victory over Bayern Munich in 1999
YOUR CLUB’S AVERAGE MANAGER TENURE
In terms of average tenures at clubs since 1946/47, Manchester United, boosted by Ferguson’s tenure, lead the pack with the average boss lasting 2,346 days. Arsenal have the second longest with 2,172 days, followed by Ipswich (2,007), West Ham (1,916), Liverpool (1,741) and Everton (1,473).
Relative Football League newcomers Morecambe (1,988) and AFC Wimbledon (1,790) also have high averages, due to their recent promotions from non league.
New Notts County manager Kevin Nolan
Meanwhile, Notts County have had more managers than any other current top-four tier club over the last 70 years – appointed 48 managers for more than 35 days and averaging around 500 days at the helm each. Check out the table below to see how many managers your club has appointed…
When one compares cyber security today to what it was ten years ago, the two are almost unidentifiable as the same industry . The iPhone had only just launched; Facebook was still in it s infancy; the Internet of Things (IoT) was still a dream . The routes a hacker could use to access a system were limited, and because of this, cyber security was built around walls . One was encouraged to block attacks with firewalls and other perimeter security that could be plugged into existing systems . There was no wider strategy, with little thought given to what would happen if those walls were breached . This created a very segmented landscape, made up of a multitude of different products, all with varying capabilities and from different suppliers. Today s landscape is utterly different .
The routes into a system are so numerous they are impossible to police effectively, with the IoT making this problem greater by the day. Yet this same technology that is causing a headache for cyber security professionals is the exact same technology that can help drive a business forward . Consider the transformational potential of IoT . Data between previously distant departments or operations can now be collected, shared and used automatically, dramatically improving the efficiency with which those two business areas work. The consequences for cyber security, however, are serious .
Access across a large multinational corporations systems can be gained through one chink in the armour of one small department . Recent hacks have shown this time and again . The hack against Target, one of the biggest ever and responsible for the loss of details of 110 million customers, stemmed from a phishing attack on a contractor1 . USB sticks infected with malware are an ever-present threat; once plugged in, hackers quickly spread throughout an organisations system and begin to do serious damage . This has been proven to chilling effect in the health sector,where patient monitors have even been accessed2. To counter this, the cyber industry must work to develop a security protocol a standard that can operate effectively across all different elements of modern, large-scale computer systems; a system of systems . Such a protocol will allow for the effective identification and quantification of any security and privacy issues in any part of a business IT systems .
Other industries have used similar models of ever-presenting testing and evaluation to ensure their services are as rigorous as can be . Engineering, constantly evolving since the industrial revolution, is built upon testing . From product design through to end-of-life decommissioning, the industry constantly tests the performance and capabilities of its devices. A system of systems will allow cyber security to the same . All parts of the IT supply chain, from the service provider to the OEM; the management consultancy to the market researcher; all will be able to scrutinise their business operations from a cyber security stand point, and all to the same high level of quality.
This will align with and be underpinned by the National Cyber Security Strategy, supported by the NCSC . It aims to create an ecosystem of innovative and thriving cyber security by bringing together the best minds from government, academia and the private sector to deliver this system of systems, solving the issues presented by a divergent and complex online world . It will be the beginning of a new era of cyber security protection, based not on unrealistic goals but on our ability as a nation to mitigate and minimise risk through collaboration .
It will give the UK and its population assurances that its data and systems are safe and the base from which a successful digital economy can flourish.
(Image: file photo)
(Image: file photo)
Several tech giants have said they are examining a trove of documents leaked earlier this week that purport to show the CIA’s ability to hack into phones, computers, and smart TVs. The documents, released by WikiLeaks1, did not contain exploit code that could be used by hackers to carry out attacks, but the documents do provide details of vulnerabilities that may help security researchers identify some flaws in tech products, including Android devices and iPhones. Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Samsung were all named in the thousands of released documents, which are believed to have come from the CIA’s Center for Cyber Intelligence. The CIA has so far not commented directly on the authenticity of the leak, but on Wednesday it suggested that the release had damaged national security by helping its adversaries “with tools and information to do us harm.”
WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange said in a Thursday press conference that he will give the tech companies “exclusive access”2 to some of the technical details it has of the CIA’s hacking tools, as part of an effort to expedite the security patching process. But so far there has been no such evidence of sharing files with tech companies, however. Apple said in a statement3 that it will “rapidly address any identified vulnerabilities” it finds in its Macs or iPhone software. Google, too, said it will4 “implement any further necessary protections” and that its analysis is ongoing.
Microsoft said it was “looking into” the reports, but didn’t comment further. But security experts say that many of the vulnerabilities have already been patched. Jon Sawyer, an Android security researcher, said that most of the Android bugs listed have been already patched.
“The list seems to be limited to Android 2.2 to 4.4.4 — we are on Android 7.1.1 now,” said Sawyer . He said that many of the bugs related to legacy versions of Android and older devices. “Vague descriptions of bugs is no more worrisome than the fact they know any software has unknown vulnerabilities,” he said, adding that Google was “in no worse position than they were a week ago.”
An analysis by F-Secure showed that the majority of Android users are still using Android 4.45 . Google’s own statistics shows that the software version is third6 behind Android 5 and Android 6. Will Strafach, an iOS security researcher, said that “essentially, there is nothing” in the documents that point to working vulnerabilities of iOS 10 and later. Almost 80 percent of users are currently on a version of iOS 10, says Apple7. Strafach said the Samsung smart TV vulnerability, which required an older firmware version and physical access to the device, had also been fixed. In a brief statement, a Samsung spokesperson said the company was “urgently looking into the matter.”
Linux, the open-source operating system, was also listed in the cache of documents. “Linux is a very widely used operating system, with a huge installed base all around the world, so it is not surprising that state agencies from many countries would target Linux along with the many closed source platforms that they have sought to compromise,” said Nicko van Someren, chief technology officer at The Linux Foundation, speaking to BBC News8. He emphasized that the rapid release of security patches “enable the open source community to fix vulnerabilities and release those fixes to users faster.” But the status of other products isn’t fully known.
In the cache, close to two-dozen antivirus products, including Kaspersky, Symantec, and Avast, were listed as having vulnerabilities that were exploitable by the CIA. According to the Associated Press9, the CIA used unflattering terms to deride antivirus makers, many of which the agency exploited through vulnerabilities in their software. In one case, a flaw in Kaspersky antivirus allowed the CIA to “bypass Kaspersky’s protections,” but founder Eugene Kaspersky told an AP reporter that the vulnerability was fixed “years ago.”
Avira, another antivirus maker, said it fixed a “minor vulnerability” within hours of the documents’ release. Cindy Cohn, director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, said the CIA had “failed to accurately assess the risk of not disclosing vulnerabilities.” “Even spy agencies like the CIA have a responsibility to protect the security and privacy of Americans,” she said.
WikiLeaks said so far it has released only a fraction of what it says it obtained, and that more files will be released in the coming days and weeks.
- ^ released by WikiLeaks (www.zdnet.com)
- ^ give the tech companies “exclusive access” (www.zdnet.com)
- ^ in a statement (www.zdnet.com)
- ^ said it will (www.zdnet.com)
- ^ still using Android 4.4 (labsblog.f-secure.com)
- ^ the software version is third (developer.android.com)
- ^ says Apple (developer.apple.com)
- ^ speaking to BBC News (www.bbc.com)
- ^ to the Associated Press (hosted.ap.org)