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Germany’s cyber security chief on hacking, Russia and problems hiring experts

German Government Commissioner for Information Technology Klaus Vitt | German Federal Ministry of the Interior

Klaus Vitt discusses his role protecting Germany from cyber attacks.

By 1

3/20/17, 7:54 PM CET

Updated 3/20/17, 8:10 PM CET

This article is also available in: German2

Read more: Hacked information bomb under Germany s election3

BERLIN Meet the man in charge of protecting Europe s largest country against the ever-changing threat of hacking: the German government s IT commissioner, Klaus Vitt. During an interview with POLITICO at the German Interior Ministry, Vitt described the country s current cyber threat level as increasingly critical, announced plans to cooperate with private companies and explained why his analysts believe most professional hacking attacks on Germany come from Russia or China.

In September, Germany elects a new parliament . Could the vote be manipulated by cyber attacks?

We have analyzed all processes during election day . Wherever we found weak spots, we have introduced measures and taken precautions. In Germany, there are no electronic voting machines or automation .

The vote, therefore, is not that big of a target . However, there s never a security of 100 percent.

You re talking about potential attacks on the IT network on election night . Another issue is cyber attacks that could happen in the run-up to the election . People are concerned that stolen material from hacks could be used to compromise candidates . Do they have a reason to be afraid?

The danger is real . This is why our Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) advises parliamentarians and their groups in the parliament how to protect themselves . It starts with using virus protection software on your private computer but certainly doesn t end there.

Have cyber attacks increased during the last couple of years?

Yes, the threat situation is becoming increasingly critical . We still observe many security breaches in software and hardware, as analyzed in the BSI s annual report on the state of IT security . This in itself is critical . At the same time, however, our society, economy and state are increasingly becoming more digitalized, which also makes them more vulnerable . On top of that, attackers are becoming more professional, and they are using more intelligent malware.

In 2015, a broad-scale cyber attack on the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament, made headlines . What consequences did the government draw from the incident?

The Bundestag is in charge of its own IT security . However, there have been numerous consultations on how the parliament should make its network more secure, and the government took part in them . These recommendations were put into action very consistently . The network and its security components were completely rebuilt from scratch.

Could foreign intelligence services be involved in attacks like the one in 2015?

We are dealing with very professional attackers, that s why only in rare cases can you identify them indisputably . We analyze serious attacks very thoroughly to find out from where they originate . In order to do that, we take patterns from comparable attacks in the past as a reference . Based on such analogies, one can say with a certain probability where those attacks originate from and those analogies suggest that a majority of attacks comes from Russia or China, at least geographically.

How can Germany protect itself?

Attackers want to produce the largest effect possible . That s why they target their attacks primarily against critical infrastructure.

With Germany s IT security law introduced in 2015, we have created legislation that focuses on such infrastructures . On the one hand, it introduces minimum standards for IT security: how operators need to protect themselves against cyber attacks . There are regular checks to make sure they still follow those standards . On the other hand, they are obliged to inform authorities about any critical IT security incidents . If operators are affected, they need to alert the BSI about it, which in turn can analyze it, assess the threat and inform other operators as fast as possible so that they can protect themselves in time. I would like to apply a similar model to other companies which are not operating critical infrastructure and the public administration.

In November 2016, Germany introduced a cyber security strategy: a plan for the country on how to protect itself and how to best react to cyber attacks. What about attacks that have already happened and data that may have been taken?

A cyber attack can have different goals . One aim can be to extract information . If you have no possibility to prevent this, you need to cut off access to the internet . This was one of the measures taken during the cyber attack on the Bundestag . From this moment on, no more information can be extracted. However, in the aftermath, it s difficult to detect where malware could possibly have had access to and which data has been extracted.

What measures are you taking?

To guarantee an appropriate IT security level, we will consolidate the data centers and the networks of the national government and its institutions. Today, we have around 1,000 rooms with servers: large ones, medium-sized ones, small ones . We will centralize them at three or four highly-protected, locations . The same thing will be done with the networks . This is how we will protect the administration with a high standard of IT security.

Another measure is expanding our Cyber Defense Center opened in 2011 . The goal is to always have a clear description of what s happening in cyber space . To do that, we will analyze and assess cyber incidents, with all national security agencies exchanging technical information about the incidents with each other . Needless to say, cyber space is not limited to just Germany. And there s another plan we are pursuing: In Germany, we have large international companies with their own cyber security units, who observe cyber attacks, similarly to what our Cyber Defense Center does .

Four DAX companies have joined forces in the so-called German Cybersecurity Organization (DCSO) cooperation . Our idea is to work with them through exchanging technical information . However, we need a contractual basis for that . This is about highly sensitive data.

When in 2015, a Bundestag subcommittee met to discuss the hacking attack, a BSI official told the MPs that only around 15 employees inside his office had the expertise to analyze and deal with such an attack . This doesn t sound like a lot of people?

The BSI is only one unit in our Cyber Defense Center . We have more experts in the Federal Criminal Police, in the Armed Forces, and in both our domestic and the foreign intelligence agencies.

Talking about personnel: Part of the cyber security strategy is hiring more cyber security experts . How easy or difficult is it to find candidates with the necessary expertise?

There is a great demand for IT security experts . The BSI has hired several people recently . It wasn t easy to fill those positions placing an ad in some newspaper wouldn t be enough .

All those positions could be filled; in the meantime, however, we have new open positions.

How attractive a job is, however, is not only defined by its salary but also by how exciting or dynamic its environment is and by its compatibility with having a family.

The interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.

Related stories on these topics:


  1. ^ (
  2. ^ German (
  3. ^ Hacked information bomb under Germany s election (

Security reviewed across UK after Berlin Christmas market attack

One of London’s most popular tourist attractions will be protected by strict road closures as police in the UK react to the attack in Berlin. Twelve people died after a lorry ploughed into a crowded Christmas market1 in the German capital on Monday night in what is assumed to be a terror attack. It came just hours after Russia’s ambassador to Turkey Andrey Karlov was shot dead2 at a photography exhibition in Ankara. On Tuesday evening, London’s Metropolitan Police announced that planned road closures for the Changing of the Guard outside Buckingham Palace would take place from Wednesday. In a statement, police said that due to the event’s “high profile” in an “iconic location”, and because it had “a substantial military presence” and attracted large crowds, “the closures were a necessary precaution”.

Police added that the road closures were “a precautionary measure and not in relation to any specific intelligence”. The three-month trial will see Constitution Hill, the Queen Victoria Memorial, Spur Road, Link Road and The Mall up to the junction with Marlborough Road closed to vehicles between 10.45am and 12.30pm on the days of the Changing of the Guard at the palace. Police said security at other events in the UK over Christmas and New Year is also being reviewed following the attacks in Berlin and Ankara, saying there are “detailed plans for protecting public events over the Christmas and New Year period”.

:: Merkel believes it was ‘terror attack’3 The force said: “These already recognise that the threat level is at ‘severe’, meaning an attack is highly likely, and have considered a range of threats, including the use of large vehicles. “As a matter of routine, as a precaution, we review our plans after attacks overseas, and we are doing so at present following the awful incidents in Berlin and Ankara.”

Big crowds are expected to be in London over the festive period as shoppers flock to the capital for post-Christmas sales, and more than 100,000 revellers are expected at the New Year’s Eve fireworks.

:: ‘Markets should have been shut’, expert says4 Police patrols at Christmas markets have been stepped up after the events in Berlin. Greater Manchester Police said it had stepped up presence at markets in the city, which have almost 350 stalls spread across 10 sites. London Mayor Sadiq Khan reassured people in the capital over Christmas that “keeping everyone safe remains the highest priority for the Met commissioner and for me”. The Road Haulage Association (RHA) called on drivers to take extra security measures after the Berlin incident. Concerns have been raised about regulations governing the sale of used trucks since an attack in Nice, France, in June, in which 86 people were killed. RHA chief executive Richard Burnett said: “No amount of additional regulations can prevent, for example, the hijack of a truck that will be used in another such attack.

“We all have a duty to be vigilant and drivers should take extra security measures wherever possible especially when lorries are parked up.”


  1. ^ a lorry ploughed into a crowded Christmas market (
  2. ^ Russia’s ambassador to Turkey Andrey Karlov was shot dead (
  3. ^ Merkel believes it was ‘terror attack’ (
  4. ^ Markets should have been shut’, expert says (

Security expert: ‘Christmas markets should have been shut’

Authorities should have done more to protect people in Berlin if they had intelligence providing clear information about a threat, a security expert has told Sky News.

Professor Anthony Glees, of Buckingham University, said if German police had the same intelligence as that possessed by the US, they should have taken firmer action. It remains unclear whether terrorism was behind the crash, in which at least nine people died after a truck drove into a busy Christmas market in Berlin.1 But the US State Department issued a warning in late November telling American citizens to exercise caution at “holiday festivals, events and outdoor markets”.

:: Live: Truck crashes into Christmas market in Berlin2

The warning said: “Credible information indicates the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or Daesh), al Qaeda, and their affiliates continue to plan terrorist attacks in Europe, with a focus on the upcoming holiday season and associated events. “US citizens should also be alert to the possibility that extremist sympathisers or self-radicalised extremists may conduct attacks during this period with little or no warning.”

Prof Glees said: “Forgive me for saying this on such a tragic evening, it is mealy-mouthed to tell individual citizens to be careful when they go to Christmas markets. “It is the job of the state and agencies of the state, the intelligence of security agencies, to keep people safe.

“If there was clear intelligence that a Christmas market was going to be attacked, then all Christmas markets should have been shut until that danger was dealt with.

“You cannot tell people to watch out for a truck that might be driven by terrorists in their direction .

You cannot do it that way.”


  1. ^ in which at least nine people died after a truck drove into a busy Christmas market in Berlin. (
  2. ^ :: Live: Truck crashes into Christmas market in Berlin (