Cyber attacks are the virtual reality that has just got real . On Friday, hackers suspected of being Russian broke into parliament, in a sustained and determined attack that compromised the network. Using software that reportedly used brute force to overwhelm and guess passwords, only 90 email accounts were breached before the attack was rebuffed, but the UK s defences are looking flimsy against a rising tide of online attacks . Last month, the NHS-crippling WannaCry1 virus crippled dozens of health trusts as computers were frozen . University College London was hit by a major ransomware attack this month that shut down its shared systems.
The devastating nature of such attacks lies in simplicity as much as state-of-the-art technology: it just takes one employee to open or respond to the wrong email . Barclays chief executive Jes Staley was left red-faced last month when he fell for a hoax email purporting to be from Barclays chairman John McFarlane. London, though, is leading a fightback . In February, the Queen opened the National Cyber Security Centre, part of GCHQ in Victoria, which worked around the clock to shut down Friday s attack . The booming fintech sector is a magnet for private-sector cyber security companies such as DynaRisk and CybSafe looking to service them . And so the best and the brightest talent are making their way to the capital . This group of ethical hackers and security experts are the new first line of defence.
The parliament attack was pretty unsophisticated the cyber equivalent of a criminal trying a door to see if it s locked properly, says Oliver Rees, 26, CEO of Southwark company Trustlight, whose job is to make sure cyber back doors stay locked .
He s part of London s fightback against cyber crime in the UK . The new normal is the everyday hackers trying to break into our phones, TVs and anything else that s connected . The good news is that with a few simple steps, we can protect against 99.9 per cent of the attacks. CyLon (Cyber London), Europe s first dedicated cyber security start-up accelerator, is based in Hammersmith and pumps 15,000 each into fledgling cyber security companies with bright ideas but bare pockets . It s a three-month programme where entrepreneurial teams with innovative and disruptive business ideas are provided with access to expert training and guidance from an accomplished network of mentors and investors.
The capital is, therefore, a cyber petri dish, where we scoop out virus cultures and stick them under the microscope, then work on an inoculation . But who are they recruiting?
The AI cyber sentry
Emily Orton, Darktrace
(Daniel Hambury/Stella Pictures)
Every year hackers are getting better, says Emily Orton, 33, co-founder and director of Darktrace, the 400million-valued London-based cyber security firm, shortlisted for this year s Evening Standard Business Awards, which claims to have beaten the WannaCry hack . There s been an industrialisation of the threat landscape she says, as hackers become better funded and better equipped via the Dark Web.
We re seeing a move towards more automated threats, cleverer cyber weapons, and attacks towards trust in data, where people are in a network for longer, undermining its integrity . The response ? Their machine learning AI which stops emerging threats as they happen . Orton uses the analogy of the human body, with the skin being rudimentary firewall systems that keep out elementary threats .
We re the immune system that works to continually identify anything that gets through, adapting to any internal threat that shouldn t be there, she says . It s an AI that builds an understanding of what s normal for the organisation, so it can spot when a device or person in organisation acts strangely and flag that in real time.
The web s guardian angels
Aleks Koha, Titan Grid
Hackers never sleep, so neither do we, says Estonian Koha, 23, CEO of Titan Grid, one of CyLon s latest incubators . They find the most annoying time to hit you, like a Friday, or a weekend, when the lights are on but nobody s around to defend themselves . Koha works round the clock with his five-man team in Hammersmith, to the extent that his girlfriend is always glaring because my laptop s on in bed late at night .
Titan Grid specialises in cyber counterintelligence it sweeps up and erase clients home addresses, emails, and phone numbers from the internet using automated tools . These are the most basic lockpicks a hacker looks for, with over 60 online identities stolen per second.
It s dangerous, because the information we collect is useful to hackers too, says Koha . We have targets on our backs . Koha practices MMA and jujitsu in his spare time, which helps him develop resistance to high pressure situations . We can t stop 100 per cent of attacks happening in the first place, but we can give you a better lock than your neighbour, he says.
The identity cloaker
Irra Ariella Khi, VChain
I m much more comfortable working with my brain rather than my face, nowadays, says Khi, 33, a former model, an Oxford history and politics grad, and two-time e-commerce founder, who is fluent in nine languages . Her London start-up, Vchain, wants to make your identity unhackable , pitching to replace passports with blockchain technology, a digital ID key that no one can clone, which has so far been chiefly associated with Bitcoin transfers . Data is stored very poorly right now, says Khi .
You trade data for services you need, but have no quality control over how it s captured. International Airlines Group, British Airways s parent company, has already invested megabucks in Vchain which she runs with co-founder Alexander Gorelik after she won the pitch as the only woman on stage . I find that competence wins out, whatever your gender, she says . If in a room full of boys, the girl puts her hand up, chances are you ll be addressed not first or second, perhaps, but you ll be heard . A single mother, she lives in Fulham with her five-year-old daughter.
The e-psychology gurus
Oliver Rees and Alexander Walker, Trustlight
We re new here, says Oliver Rees, 26, CEO of Trustlight, another Cylon incubator that uses both technology and psychology to stop email fraud . He s not just talking about the company . We ve had 200,000 years of human evolution to learn to sense when there s a physical threat behind a bush, he says, but only 20 years to learn to sense threats online.
It s the people who most often accidentally give up the secrets, rather than the machines, agrees CTO Alexander Walker, 29 . Ninety per cent of attacks start with someone receiving an email that isn t genuine, he says . Trustlight, with the permission of companies, crafted fake emails in their testing stage to see who would take what bait.
Invite anyone to be the keynote speaker at an event and they ll click on the link every time, says Walker . Not all hackers are the enemy, though . A Jordanian contacted them to highlight a security flaw, asking for a bug bounty ; Rees replied that they couldn t pay the money, but sent him a T-shirt instead . He sent us a selfie, wearing it, and the happy ending is that now we work together.
The cybersecurity credit raters
Andrew Martin, Dynarisk
Born in Toronto, Canada, Martin, now 35, was a typical hacker in his teens, a near high school dropout, terrible at every subject apart from IT . Having enjoyed the adrenaline rush of breaking into systems , he realised the risks if he actually stole anything , so he stopped, and started working for a bank to stop people like me breaking in . (With his skills, getting a job when he moved to the UK in 2012 was easy.) His best trick was reverse engineering viruses , allowing him to find out where they were talking back to . According to Martin, he uncovered state-sponsored hacking, criminal groups in Eastern Europe, Asian and Central America , handing intelligence to the police . He s now left the fun stuff behind: his own company, Dynarisk, assesses an individual s risk to see how likely they are to be hacked, giving them a credit score and a tailored action plan of the things they need to do to protect themselves.
It also scans devices for vulnerabilities, check to see if emails were breached (his own has been five times), send safe, probing phishing emails and scan home browsers to see if can be accessed via the internet . He and his wife, Yasmin live in south London . They met in cyber security, so you see, you can find love in this line of work too .
The university of hacks
Oz Alashe, CybSafe
Oz Alashe, 40, is the daddy of all cyber security experts . As a father of two, a boy, five, and a girl, 19 weeks old, he worries about the online safety of his kids as much as the work of his GCHQ-accredited Canary Wharf firm CybSafe . He s also served in the UK s special forces, so he knows how to keep us safe . He s therefore all about education: CybSafe is a cloud-based educational tool allowing companies and their staff to learn how to look after their own.
Originally, we worked with cyber security experts, including ethical hackers, to learn the tools of cyber hackers: we then built a platform and modules that address what we learnt . They then assess to see if staff behaviour is changed by simulating attacks, via phishing emails, corrupted SMS text messages or USB stick drops (they work with both government and commercial entities) . You d be amazed at how many people pick up a USB stick with the word bonuses written on it and plug it straight in, says Alashe.
Pedro Ribeiro, Immersive Labs
If you re going to protect against hackers, you need to know how to hack, says Pedro Ribeiro, 33, CTO of Immersive Labs, another CyLon incubator, which teaches companies staff how to be hackers themselves . It s like playing a game of chess, and if you don t have all the pieces, you don t stand a chance .
Ribeiro s been a legal ethical hacker for eight years, exposing companies flaws on their payroll, earning between 500 and 2,500 a day .
The problem is, there s a severe skills shortage, which means we re expensive, he says . To bring the costs down and with increasing demand for hack-literate employees Immersive Labs shows them how to do it, teaching them to pull source code, manipulate sites to their advantage, spot problems with programmes and exploit them . Ribeiro is a devoted martial arts disciple . These days you have two types of hacker: the old-school doesn t see the daylight type, and the opposite . It s good for the body and the mind, and it fits with the hacking mind-set: you re fighting something big, always going against the current.
Some of the world s poorest countries will be hit hardest as climate change affects marine fisheries all over the world, according to a new study. The global fishing industry produces a total catch worth of about $90bn ( 71bn) but the warming ocean temperatures are causing many valuable species to shift their usual ranges. The potential for water to hit temperatures lethal to corals such as Australia s Great Barrier Reef, which support vast amounts of other marine life, is a particular problem.
The researchers assessed 147 countries based on their vulnerability to the effect of future warming on fishing in their waters and their ability to cope with the changes. The worst-affected countries were mostly small islands, with Kiribati, Micronesia, the Solomon Islands, the Maldives and Vanuatu making up the top five, according to a paper in the journal PLOS ONE1. However, large countries like China, in eighth place, Nigeria (15th) and Indonesia (26th) also featured high on the list.
Ireland was predicted to be the least vulnerable country in 147th place, followed by Chile, the UK, Iceland and Namibia, with the US in sixth. The five worst-affected countries were given a vulnerability score that was eight to nine times higher than those at the bottom of the list. Writing in the journal, the researchers warned that climate change s effect on fisheries could harm food security, people s livelihoods and public health particularly in poor countries that are less able to cope.
More than 87 per cent of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member states wealthy countries, they said.
This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices.
And the countries that have done the least to cause climate change appear to be the ones that can expect their fisheries to be the worst affected by it.
A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities, the researchers wrote.
Armed police are being deployed amid heightened security at Scotland s mosques after a terror attack on worshippers in London. Darren Osborne, 47, has been arrested on suspicion of murder and attempted murder1 after a van was driven into pedestrians near Finsbury Park Mosque in the early hours of Monday morning. Police Scotland said it would have an increased presence at the country s 84 mosques to provide reassurance to local communities. One man died in London following the attack on those leaving evening prayers after breaking the Ramadan fast. Witnesses described hearing the man, who was detained by members of the public at the scene, shout: I m going to kill Muslims. Police confirmed searches were being carried out at a residential address in the Welsh capital. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu, of the Metropolitan Police, said: Our thoughts are with all those affected by the incident at Seven Sisters Road and their families, friends and communities.
This is being treated as a terrorist incident and is being investigated by the counter terrorism command. The investigation is ongoing and we are working fast to know the full details of how and why this took place. All the victims were from the Muslim community and we will be deploying extra police patrols to reassure the public, especially those observing Ramadan.
Earlier in the day, security minister Ben Wallace confirmed the attacker was not known to the intelligence services. He said: What I can say on this case is this individual, so far as we know at the moment, was not known to us, but we are aware of a rise in the far right. The attacker, who is believed to have acted alone, struck as the area was busy with worshippers attending Ramadan night prayers at the mosque. Prime Minister Theresa May condemned the incident as every bit as sickening as the recent atrocities in London and Manchester. After meeting faith leaders at Finsbury Park Mosque, she said: The terrible terrorist attack which took place last night was an evil borne out of hatred and it has devastated a community. I am pleased to have been here today to see the strength of that community coming together, all faiths united in one desire to see extremism and hatred of all sorts driven out of our society.
There is no place for this hatred in our country today and we need to work together as one society, one community, to drive it out, this evil which is affecting so many families. Police and community leaders have praised those who restrained the van driver and stopped others from attacking him before police arrived. Imam Mohammed Mahmoud was hailed for his efforts to calm the chaotic situation in the aftermath of the attack and was said to have used his body to shield the suspected terrorist from the fury of onlookers. Witnesses said the suspect was smiling and waving as he brought carnage to Seven Sisters Road, with video posted online showing him give a nonchalant wave as police put him in the back of their vehicle. Other footage showed a scene of chaos as people could be heard shouting and screaming amid the chaos, with bloodstains visible on the pavement. One witness described being surrounded by bodies in the wake of the incident outside the nearby Muslim Welfare House.
Another witness, who wanted to be identified as Abdulrahman, which is not his real name, said: I managed to get the driver of the van. He wanted to run away and was saying I want to kill Muslims. So he came back to the main road and I managed to get him to the ground and me and some other guys managed to hold him until the police arrived. Abdulrahman claimed the driver said Kill me , as he was being held on the ground. He is also alleged to have told the injured: You deserve it. Officers were in the immediate vicinity as the attack unfolded and responded within one minute. Police declared it a terrorist incident within eight minutes. After chairing a meeting of the Government s Cobra emergencies committee earlier, Mrs May said the attack was every bit as insidious and destructive to our values and our way of life as the recent string of terror attacks apparently motivated by Islamist extremism. We will stop at nothing to defeat it, she added.
Eight people were taken to hospital, with one since discharged, while two others were treated at the scene. All of the casualties were Muslims. Police said it was too early to say if the man who died did so directly because of the attack, as he was already receiving first aid from the public at the scene when it happened. Images of the van used in the attack showed it was rented from Pontyclun Van Hire in Pontyclun, near Cardiff. South Wales Police are working with officers from London on the investigation. Communities and Local Government Secretary Sajid Javid also visited the scene and said he will seek advice from the local community as to what measures the authorities can take to give Muslims across the country maximum reassurance that they are being protected.
The perpetrator of this attack – and those terrible attacks that we saw recently in Manchester and London – their intention is to seek to divide society . My message to them is that they will always, always fail, he said. Flowers have been laid near the scene, with one card reading: This is an attack on all Londoners – and on my community. In a statement, the Muslim Council of Scotland condemned the attack in the strongest possible terms . It said: This attack was aimed directly at the vibrant Muslim community during the month of Ramadan at a time when many families would have been returning home after night time prayers. Our thoughts and prayers are with the victims, the injured and anyone affected by this tragedy .
Our heart goes out to the people of London who have been through so much in the last few months and are still waiting for news on many friends and family in the Grenfell Tower tragedy. This attack goes to show how hate and terrorism has no religion or face . The motive of these people is to spread division .
Together, as a united community, we can defeat those who seek to divide us. Assistant Chief Constable Nelson Telfer, of Police Scotland, said: There is no specific threat to Scotland, however, Police Scotland is increasing armed patrols in response to the attack in London. We continue to engage with all communities providing reassurance and appropriate support.
Communities absolutely do defeat terrorism: if you see or hear something that could be terrorist related, act on your instincts and call the police on 101 or, in emergency 999, or in confidence on 0800 789 321.
- ^ has been arrested on suspicion of murder and attempted murder (www.scotsman.com)